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Parenting is the process of raising children from infancy to adulthood and providing necessary support and safety for healthy development (1). Family members and caregivers other than birth parents may also have a large role in parenting (2).


Parenting Risk/Pro

Risk and/or Protective Factor

Positive parenting styles are considered to include warmth, responsiveness, encouraging compliance with rules, supporting autonomy, and sensitivity to needs (3). Supportive and warm parenting has been linked to decreased depression in young people (4).


Negative parenting styles include authoritarian (high in restrictiveness, low nurture), permissive (high in nurture, low in restrictiveness), and neglectful (not high in nurture or restrictiveness) (3). These parenting styles have been associated with increased internalising behaviours in children and young people, such as anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as lower self-esteem (3,5).


Mental health can also be a risk factor for developing negative parenting styles. Posttraumatic stress disorder has been linked to harsher parenting, which in return has adverse effects on children and young people’s mental health (6).



1.        Kretchmar-Hendricks M. Parenting | Britannica [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2021 Jan 12]. Available from:

2.        Barlow J, Shaw R, Stewart-Brown S. Parenting programmes and minority ethnic families: Experiences and outcomes. London; 2004.

3.        Rose J, Roman N, Mwaba K, Ismail K. The relationship between parenting and internalizing behaviours of children: a systematic review. Early Child Dev Care [Internet]. 2018 Oct 3 [cited 2021 Jan 22];188(10):1468–86. Available from:

4.        Piko BF, Baĺazs MA. Control or involvement? Relationship between authoritative parenting style and adolescent depressive symptomatology. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry [Internet]. 2012 Mar [cited 2021 Jan 29];21(3):149–55. Available from:

5.        Smokowski PR, Bacallao ML, Cotter KL, Evans CBR. The Effects of Positive and Negative Parenting Practices on Adolescent Mental Health Outcomes in a Multicultural Sample of Rural Youth. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev [Internet]. 2014 Jun 1 [cited 2021 Jan 22];46(3):333–45. Available from:

6.        Bryant RA, Edwards B, Creamer M, O’Donnell M, Forbes D, Felmingham KL, et al. The effect of post-traumatic stress disorder on refugees’ parenting and their children’s mental health: a cohort study. Lancet Public Heal. 2018 May 1;3(5):e249–58.


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