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Bullying is repetitive and intentionally inflicted harm, involving a power imbalance (1). These actions can be verbal, physical or social and can occur at any point throughout life (2). Cyberbullying is online bullying and utilises anonymity and ability to publicly harm or embarrass someone (3).


Bullying Risk

Risk Factor

Experiencing bullying has been linked to increased depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem compared to non-bullied children (4). Furthermore, experiencing depression may also predict victimisation (5). Cyberbullying is suggested to influence poor mental health most, potentially due to the high amount of time spent online (6). Workplace bullying has been linked to increased anxiety, which can affect job performance (7).



1.        Olweus D. Bullying at school: What we know. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing; 1993.

2.        Monks CP, Smith PK. Definitions of bullying: Age differences in understanding of the term, and the role of experience. Br J Dev Psychol. 2006 Nov;24(4):801–21.

3.        Thomas H, Connor J, Scott J. Integrating Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying: Challenges of Definition and Measurement in Adolescents - a Review. Educ Psychol Rev. 2015;27(1):135–52.

4.        van Verseveld M, Fekkes M. Bullying and mental health: the effects of Prima anti-bullying program in The Netherlands. Eur J Public Health [Internet]. 2018 Nov 1 [cited 2021 Jan 20];28(suppl_4). Available from:

5.        Kaltiala-Heino R, Fröjd S, Marttunen M. Involvement in bullying and depression in a 2-year follow-up in middle adolescence. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry [Internet]. 2010 Jan 9 [cited 2021 Jan 20];19(1):45–55. Available from:

6.        Baier D, Hong JS, Kliem S, Bergmann MC. Consequences of Bullying on Adolescents’ Mental Health in Germany: Comparing Face-to-Face Bullying and Cyberbullying. J Child Fam Stud [Internet]. 2019 Sep 1 [cited 2021 Jan 20];28(9):2347–57. Available from:

7.        Wu M, He Q, Imran M, Fu J. Workplace Bullying, Anxiety, and Job Performance: Choosing Between “Passive Resistance” or “Swallowing the Insult”? Front Psychol [Internet]. 2020 Jan 17 [cited 2021 Jan 20];10. Available from:


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